Key learning goals
To be able to explain: the impact of racial segregation and discrimination in the USA in the 1950s;
- Jim Crow – refers to the segregation laws imposed by states in the Deep South
- Deep South – Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana
- Other states in the south where segregation was legally enforced:
(Texas, Arkansas, Tenessee, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia
- Literacy tests
- Poll tax
- Implications of voting restrictions on justice
- de jure discrimination
- de facto discrimination
- Plessy versus Ferguson, 1896 – Separate but Equal
- National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
- 1861-65 American Civil War
- 1865 13th Amendment to the Constitution abolishes slavery;
- 1868 14th Amendment to the Constitution granted citizenship and equal protection under the law to all persons born or naturalized in the United States
- 1870 15th Amendment removed restrictions on voting rights based on race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
- 1896 Plessy versus Ferguson ruled that segregation was constitutional so long as it was ‘separate but equal’
- 1914-18 Great Migration North
- 1929-1941 Great Depression
- 1941-5 World War II
- 1941 Under threat from a ‘March on Washington’ organised by A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and A.J. Muste, American government passed Executive Orders first to de-segregate war industries (Fair Employment Act)
- 1948 – another threatened March on Washington led to the abolition of segregation in the military.
- K. Taylor, A divided Union: Civil Rights in the USA, 1945-74, pp. 20-23.
- Follow the progress of the struggles through the National Archives
- Write down your own definition of Segregation and discrimination. Give three different examples of each.
- According to James Eastland (Source B) what were the benefits of racial segregation? How popular do you think his views would have been?
- Why did the three branches of the US government do so little to give African Americans more civil rights?